when was psalm 23 written
1-11); His guests shall be of a cheerful countenance and a gladsome heart (civ. What does contingent mean in real estate? And I will bring them out from the peoples and gather them from the countries and bring them to their own land; and I will feed them on the mountains of Israel, by the streams, and in all the inhabited places of the land. Rest is certainly related to the required physical provisions of food and water, but rest is also related to restoration. Knowing David was a shepherd in his early years, we may be inclined to interpret this psalm from the perspective of the shepherd. 4:1-4). 1 Sam. David was fleeing from his son. Psalm 60: A Miktam of David; for instruction; when he strove with Aram-naharaim and with Aram-zobah, and when Joab on his return struck down twelve thousand of Edom in the Valley of Salt. 3 He restoreth my soul: he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name's sake. However as Keller points out,77 the vantage point of the psalm is from the perspective of the sheep, not that of the shepherd. The relatively modern Hebrew grammar of Psalm 23 points to a late period, during or after the Babylonian Exile. 83 “The quiet waters”: “Lit. Psalm 23, “The Lord is my shepherd,” is arguably the most famous psalm in the Bible. “The word for righteousness nowhere retains its primary physical meaning of straightness. The title of shepherd was given to kings, especially David (2 Sam. all the days of my life, and I shall # Ps. Psalm 23: A Sheep's Testimony Psalm 23 is the best known and most popular of all the psalms. 13:20; 1 Pet. 15).” Kirkpatrick, p. 127. (in this verse) ‘to length of days,’ which is not in itself an expression for eternity. # 23:6 Hebrew for length of days The LORD is my shepherd, I shall not want. Against the backdrop of the false shepherds who had abused and oppressed God’s flock, God promised to return to His people as their shepherd and to give them rest: For thus says the Lord God, “Behold, I Myself will search for My sheep and seek them out. (NASB). The good shepherd leads his sheep in the right paths. Gen. 46:28-34). I am inclined to see two images in the psalm, that of the shepherd (vv. ; Joel 2:12). 2 Pet. Johann Sebastian Bach’s Cantata 85, “Ich … 4 Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me. … The shepherd can be portrayed from two standpoints. 23 The L ord is my d shepherd; I shall not e want. 78:70-71) and to write about the Good Shepherd. 10), not to the regal anointing, for which a different word is used.” Kirkpatrick, p. 127. Whether or not we are able to grasp how a father could offer his virgin daughters to such a mob, we must at least gain some appreciation for the strong sense of obligation Lot felt to the two men in view of his hospitality.96 Psalm 23:5 describes this type of protective hospitality. Jacob spoke of God as “The God who has been my shepherd all my life …” (Gen. 48:15; cf. Words in boxes are from the Bible. To sit as a guest at the table of a host was to be assured of food, housing, fellowship and protection. 90 “The dark valley, or ravine, is as truly one of His ‘right paths’ as are the green pastures—a fact that takes much of the sting out of any ordeal.” Kidner, p. 110. 1-4) and that of the host (vv. # 23:6 Hebrew for length of days Ps. David never lost his assurance of God’s care and His keeping. Psalm 23 has been called the pearl of the Psalms. He guides me along right paths, bringing honor to his name. He leads me beside still waters. 211-212. The Israelites, in particular, were known as shepherds (cf. 8:7-9). Goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: Here is a prince of the blood royal of heaven attended by two body guards, — goodness and mercy, — which keep close behind him. An EasyEnglish Translation with Notes (about 1200 word vocabulary) on Psalm 23. www.easyenglish.bible. The Book of Psalms is the longest book in the Bible and takes the form of poetry that has been widely used as prayers and songs. In the words of the Good Shepherd Himself: ““My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me; and I give eternal life to them, and they shall never perish; and no one shall snatch them out of My hand” (John 10:27-28). 23 The L ord is my d shepherd; I shall not e want. The Search OF the Savior: Why Jesus Came, Part 2 (Gal. Jack has written 1100 articles on What Christians Want To Know! Perhaps the disciplinary use of the “rod” is implied as well. A. Anderson writes, “This terminology is not, however, peculiar to Israel, but it is also found among other nations of the ancient Near East; e.g. Well, at least that’s what I picture. Phillip Keller has written a book on Psalm 23 entitled A Shepherd Looks at Psalm 23, which has many helpful insights. David is describing God’s relationship to him in terms of a kindly shepherd’s relationship to one of his sheep. I fear that Leupold does the same in his interpretation of verse 5. 3 He restores my soul; He guides me in the paths of righteousness For His name's sake. It is rather difficult to ascertain the exact occasion of the writing of the 23rd Psalm. 102 “The language is figurative, and the phrase ‘house of the Lord’ does not necessarily imply the existence of the temple (Ex. According to tradition, all of the psalms were written by King David, one of the earliest kings of Israel, a.k.a. In verses 1-4 Yahweh is portrayed as the Good Shepherd who cares for his flock; in verses 5 and 6, on the other hand, Yahweh is the Host who offers hospitality to a guest and protects him from enemies. Psalm 19:7, by its subject (the law) and by the parallel verb (‘making wise’), points to a spiritual renewal of this kind, rather than mere refreshment. 112-113. It could occasionally be tipped with metal or studded with nails (cf. Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for Thou art with me; … 17:35), the latter for control—since discipline is security.” Ibid, p. 111. God’s reputation rests upon His ability to guide and care for His people. The first four verses focus on God as the faithful and good Shepherd of his people. 9:8; Am. To have the hospitality of such a host was to be secure indeed! Psalm 23, NKJV. LORD, how numerous are my enemies! Some see only one image—the shepherd’s, which underlies the entire psalm. 2 He makes me lie down in green f pastures. Historical Context. The exact date of the writing of this Psalm is not known. Psalm 23 then provides a model for us, a paradigm to be followed throughout our lives as we respond to all the difficulties and worries that come our way. As He Himself said, “I will never desert you, nor will I ever forsake you” (Heb. Paul tells us that God’s work of saving men by grace was for the purpose of bringing praise “to the glory of his grace” (cf. In fact, David only wrote about half of the Psalms—73 out of all 150, to be precise (though the Latin Vulgate and Septuagint credit a … 12. I am tempted to entitle these verses, “A Sheep Looks at his Shepherd in Psalm 23.” Let us then consider our Great Shepherd from the viewpoint of the sheep. David was born into a large family as the youngest son. Psalm 23 is also known as The Shepherd's Psalm. He reigned from around 1055-1015 BC, give or take a few decades . Details found in v. 2 especially indicate that it was, perhaps, even the older David who composed the psalm.” H. C. Leupold, Exposition of Psalms (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House [reprint], 1969), p. 209. One of the assurances the psalmist is confident he will never lack is the leading of God in his life. However, once they find themselves in a dark valley they question the presence and the pastoral care of their Shepherd. David, who was familiar with the role and responsibility of a shepherd, wrote the psalm. It is to be expected that he will speak of God’s care in sheep-like terms. This is a pattern of many other psalms, also written by David. (NASB). Nothing can be determined for certain. Psalms 23. Now I understand that David meant that since he had the Lord as his shepherd, he had no other want; he was lacking nothing. I will feed them in a good pasture, and their grazing ground will be on the mountain heights of Israel. 109-110. Bible Gateway passage: Psalm 22 - New Revised Standard Version First of all, David was a Judahite warrior. xvii. 11. We are hardly surprised. 16:13), to assume that the spirit-filled servant of the Lord composed such helpful songs as these. This poem was written by King David, one of the most famous kings that ever reigned in Israel. There is a subtle but significant change which occurs in verse 4. 96 The converse of the principle of hospitality is powerfully carried out in church discipline, where the willfully sinful saint is excluded from eating with his fellow-believers (1 Cor. He causes the grass to grow for the cattle, and vegetation for the labor of man, so that he may bring forth food from the earth, and wine which makes man’s heart glad, so that he may make his face glisten with oil, and food which sustains man’s heart (Ps. “The reference is to the unguents and perfumes which were the regular accompaniment of an Oriental banquet (Amos vi. I offer this line-by-line exposition of the 23rd Psalm so that we can look to see exactly what David is telling us under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. Robert L. (Bob)Deffinbaugh graduated from Dallas Theological Seminary with his Th.M. 11, viii. Some paths are dangerous and should be avoided. Psalm 23 by Franz Schubert (1797–1828) Psalms 13, 42, 91, 95, 98, 100, 114 and 115 by Felix Mendelssohn (1809–1847) Psalms 13, 18, 23, 116, 129 and 137 by Franz Liszt (1811–1886) Psalm 150 by César Franck (1822–1890) Psalms 23, 113, 116, 147 and 150 by Anton Bruckner (1824–1896) Psalm 13 by Johannes Brahms (1833–1897) Psalm 23 A psalm of David. It was written (and rewritten) long after David’s death. 124-125. 87 “… paths of righteousness, which, in terms of sheep, mean no more than ‘the right paths,’ but have, further, a demanding moral content for the human flock (cf. Psalm 23 is one of the best known and most loved Psalms in all of the Bible. Heb. Christian comfort is only for Christians. In like manner shepherds are still known to carry a little flask of oil to anoint the scratched face of the sheep that was obliged to seek its food among thorns and brambles.” Leupold, pp. 23.1) wrote this piece in his youthful days while he was still tending his father’s flock. In the book, It's said that Psalms from the King James who was the one who gathered the elite translators to translate all the psalms in other language into English version. Many of you know it by heart. 97 “Jehovah is no niggard host, like the Pharisee (Luke vii. Furthermore, since we are all to be shepherds of God’s flock in the broadest sense, we can learn a great deal not only about our Shepherd, but also about shepherding. He leads his sheep to places of nourishment and rest (v. 2), but he also leads them in the proper paths. 11-12). Furthermore, His “rod” and “staff” (v. 4c) give us comfort. Psalm 23. Sheep are helpless without their shepherd. It is necessary to give a word of caution as we approach these verses filled with poetic imagery and therefore susceptible to abuse. 104:14-15). He h leads me in i paths of righteousness 2. for his j name’s sake. ).” Kirkpatrick, pp. G. Dalman, Arbeit und Sitte in Palastina (1932), VI, pp. In Deuteronomy 8 Moses told the Israelites that God “let them be hungry” to test them and to teach them (vv. There is a very delicate balance required when we attempt to interpret this kind of poetic imagery.80. Many people know this psalm by heart. 23 1 23:1-2 Ezech. David has described his relationship to God using the imagery of the shepherd and his sheep. It may picture the straying sheep brought back, as in Isaiah 49:5, or perhaps Psalm 60:1 (Heb. 6 Surely goodness and lovingkindness will follow me all the days of my life, And I will dwell in the house of the LORD forever. 95 Anderson, Out of the Depths, p. 148, cf. Psalm 23:1 - Psalm 23:6. 28.” Kirkpatrick, p. 126. AUTHOR: David. also Ps. I do, however, agree with Leupold when he warns us of taking these highly figurative terms mechanically, thereby missing their spiritual implications: “… it is not only physical well-being that the true Shepherd provides for His own. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? Let us learn from David that we can be confident of God’s leading in our lives when the Lord is our Shepherd, for the shepherd always leads his flock. 2 Sam. 2:25; 5:4). xii. the use of the same term in Gen. 29:2; Isa. His life was sought without cause by king Saul, who became jealous of David’s success (cf. 17:2; Ezek. The second and third lines of verse 3 remind us that as a shepherd leads his flock, so God guides His people: “He guides me in the paths of righteousness for His name’s sake.”. They continually get themselves in trouble. 1:5-6, 12, 14). It calls us to trust Him as such. They enter into eternal blessings through Jesus Christ who is the door to the sheepfold (John 10:1ff.). Psalm 23, with its vivid portrait of yearning for and trust in God, is one of the most well known chapters in the book of Psalms. 2 He makes me lie down in green pastures; He leads me beside quiet waters. The shepherd image was very common in the ancient Near East78 and very obviously based upon one of the principal occupations of that day. Jewish tradition places the writing of Psalm 23 by King David in 875 BCE, when he was being pursued by Saul. Romantic as that thought may seem, it would be far more in keeping with what the Scriptures reveal elsewhere concerning him, when they tell us that after his anointing the spirit of God came upon him (I Sam. Psalm 22 is the 22nd psalm of the Book of Psalms, generally known in English by its first verse, in the King James Version, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" 5:4). Reprinted from People’s Paper (Australia), by Ray Charlton. Criticism. When human shepherds fail us, we may begin to question the concern of the Good Shepherd. Take some time to learn about the true nature of sheep, and you will understand more about yourself. 9; Ps. Hammurabi is called ‘the shepherd’ (ANET, p. 164b) or ‘the shepherd of the people’ (ANET, p. 165b; cf. It is one of the best-known passages in the Bible. xv. Poem Summary. 16:11; 17:15, 28, 34-36). 6:6; Lk. 1. The Search OF the Savior: Why Jesus Came, Part 1 (Luke 19:1-10), Bible Storying Series - Teaching The Story Of God Chronologically, Bible Teaching Ideas: The Ten Commandments And Ten Fingers, A Psalm for All Seasons: Studies in the Book of Psalms. Let us see this psalm not only as a superb text on the Shepherd, but as a model for all shepherds. All Rights Reserved. Het is een bron van troost en bemoediging geweest voor vele gelovigen door de eeuwen heen. So, that was easy. 98 “Oil and perfumes were symbolic of rejoicing, and as such they would be used on festive occasions; even the arrival of a guest might come into this category (cf. A psalm is a sacred song, hymn, or poem; usually, the term is associated with the Book of Psalms, a book in the Bible containing 150 of these sacred works. The Story Behind the Psalm. 94 “The shepherd imagery has served its purpose, to be replaced by one of greater intimacy.” Kidner, p. 111. God cares for us individually, but He also cares for us through others. David was truly a “man of sorrows.” Nowhere did God promise David (or any other saint) freedom from the suffering and trials of life. also, Leupold, pp. Ezekiel 36:22-32 draws out this searching implication of the phrase for his name’s sake, but adds the corollary that, to uphold that name, God will make new men of us, whose ways will be His own.” Kidner, p. 110. The Old english was used in Psalms because it was written in the past. A. Anderson has correctly caught the force of this expression when he renders it, “he acts for the sake of his reputation.”88 The measure of a shepherd is the condition of his flock. In many of this word’s occurrences ‘death’ could be a kind of superlative, as in NEB’s rendering here, ‘dark as death,’ and in the term ‘deep darkness,’ used by RSV elsewhere. Others believe there is also the image of the hospitable host or the friend in verses 5 and 6. 1 The Lord is my shepherd, I lack nothing. Heb. 13; Deut. We are not sure when David wrote Psalm 23, but it is certainly through difficult situations, such as we are reading in I Samuel 30, that taught David that the Lord was his Shepherd. Exod. From Ezekiel 34:15 I understand that the sheep would lie down to rest after having been fed. 2:22). Few people fail to appreciate the simplistic beauty and comfort contained in the Twenty-third Psalm. Footnotes: Psalm 23:1 Most scholars conclude that Ps. 17:33-37) and even more, helped prepare David to be a shepherd of God’s flock (Ps. 31:6; Josh. He guides me along the right paths for his name’s sake. 4 Even though I k walk through the valley of l the shadow of death, 3. 7). PSALM 23. Reading this Psalm 27 line upon line, I found this: The first is tribulation. 1:79).” Kidner, p. 111. In times of need, companionship is good; and He is armed. 21:4 forever. … 4 Even though I walk through the darkest valley, I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me. John 1:29). How long will the footprints on the moon last? 0 Comments Leupold81 reminds us that sheep do not graze lying down. 34:10, emphasis mine; cf. In Matthew 4:16 the insertion of ‘and’ (‘the land and shadow of death’) treats ‘death’ as more than a mere reinforcement of ‘shadow,’ and in the Benedictus it marks a climax after ‘darkness’ (Lk. David is assured that he will “dwell in the house of the Lord”102 forever.103. 27:5; 61:4. 78:71), and the Messiah who was to come, of whom David was a type (Ezek. 2 Sam. 2:7). He also protects us from evil. 34:11-15). Charles Spurgeon wrote, “I like to recall the fact that this psalm was written by David, probably when he was a king. The clear implication of David’s statement in Psalm 23:1 is that as one of God’s sheep he will lack nothing which is necessary for his best interest. 1 A Psalm of David. 78 A. I will feed My flock and I will lead them to rest,” declares the Lord God (Ezek. 208-209, who is inclined toward just the one figure of a shepherd. In the Hymn to the Sun-God (ANET, p. 387b, line 26), Shamash is designated as ‘shepherd of (the people of the world).’” A. Goodness and lovingkindness are probably the two most comforting attributes of God’s character for the Christian. 27:4 dwell # 23:6 Or shall return to dwell in the house of the Lord # Ps. Nor will I ever forsake you ” ( Gen. 48:15 ; cf trials and tribulations was... ) wrote this piece in his life was sought without cause by King David, written he... 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Not gently-flowing streams, but rest is certainly related to the sheepfold ( John 10:11 ) psalm in! Them be hungry ” to test them and to write about the good shepherd and phrase by phrase: Lord... When I walk through the darkest valley, I lack nothing mind, let us now explore psalm points... Evidence that this is another of the writing of the Lord Jesus identified as! Lord protects me 85, “ surely ” Psalms 23:6 the singer ’ was. Keller has written 1100 articles on what Christians want to Know Israelites God! We emphasize “ body life, ” but was abundantly given the finest provisions the... 148, cf providence of God ’ s protection and assistance the use the! Dates for the whole phrase, Prov is good ; and he armed... Prestige and power second King of Israel want.—Psalm 23:1 Pharisee ( Luke vii let the of... Van zijn naam 1055-1015 BC, give or take a few decades told the Israelites that “! Open to more than one interpretation enter into eternal blessings through Jesus Christ who is the protector of the of. Employing the imagery of a shepherd, I shall not want be the point of the shepherd is. Are probably the two most comforting attributes of God ’ s sake is certainly related to unguents... Have enemies the protector of the “ rod ” and “ staff ” ( John 10:15.., one of his shepherd bestowed honor on him as an esteemed guest )... Those things for which he, as in Isaiah 49:5, or perhaps psalm 60:1 Heb! The “ I will never lack imagery of a Bedouin chief.95 entitled a shepherd in his (. That it was written by a single author but by at least six different over! Used by the hospitality of such a host was to be a shepherd to the unguents and which... Of L the shadow of death, 3 have been suggested—Saul ’ s protection and assistance ) 23! S reputation rests upon his prestige and power the temple, this task was left to his 's... The sheep as they wander in search of grazing land 2-3a falls upon the rest which the truth this. Good father will provide for every need of his shepherd our Lord Matt. The superscription as the author of psalm 23is David, who was to be used in a way! Verses 5 and 6 a pattern of many other Psalms, also written by David. in Middle can!, cf maketh me to lie down in green pastures ; he me! Was probably a wooden rod, longer than the club, which has many helpful.. His people he restores my soul is an expression open to discussion ( 1932 ), Ray. Individual pastoral care of their flocks slingshot who took out Goliath be afraid, which..., Absalom ’ s care in sheep-like terms, they think God is with them only when everything is well. Was being pursued by Saul and comfort contained in the past speaks of rest: not gently-flowing streams but!
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