southern religion definition
If religion in the Old South has become a mature field, scholarship on the era since the Civil War is still, relatively speaking, in its adolescence. But Southern revivalism, unlike that, for example, of Charles G. Finney in the North, did not lead to a wave of reform activity. According to this essay, “these two religions—the Church of Law [i.e., strict moralism], based in the South, and the Church of Love [i.e., relativistic, forgiving, and reformist], based in the North—differ on almost every big theological point.” This editorial no doubt exaggerates the differences—for example, Jimmy Carter is a Southern Baptist evangelical fully engaged in social reform—but it accurately identifies a difference in basic approach whose origins lie deep in the Southern past. Church services were held Sunday morning and evening, with Wednesday night prayer services. Given that the remnant of active church-goers across the South, along with the persevering preachers, had long hoped for and confidently expected a divine interposition, news of events on the Kentucky frontier flew throughout the region, often eliciting imitative camp meeting revivals elsewhere. Although a multitude of new religious communities found a home in this area in the last decades of the twentieth century, a specific religious ethos, linked primarily to evangelical Christianity, developed over … Learn more about Cossacks in this article. Instead, here were the necessary foundation stones for the later Great Revival that, as a South-wide religious quickening in the decade after 1800, may accurately be described as the South’s “First Great Awakening”—some 60 years after the Northern and more famous First Great Awakening. More commonly, they adopt theologies that sanctify inequality. had to write, debate, and ratify their new constitutions. Out of this tradition came not only antebellum reform but the later Social Gospel movement and, in the 20th century, efforts to prevent war, end segregation, and generally advance a moderate-to-liberal social agenda. In gospel, then, the steams of southern religious music, white and black, flowed alongside one another, sometimes exchanging tunes and lyrics and styles, while remaining distinct. We do what we do together. Certainly converts gathered together in warmly supportive church communities, but seldom did Southern white Christians conceive of their religion as having a social or reform dimension other than the reformation of individual sinners (which, it was believed, would translate into a better society). It quickly became evident that whites valued the blossoming of their evangelical institutions and would make the necessary moral accommodations to align southern religious institutions with slave owning. Published 10 Oct 2014 09:59 0 Comments Uncategorized ; Since 2004, a low level insurgency has festered in the three southern Thai provinces of Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat, as well as parts of Songkhla. At one time the founding of these three denominations in Virginia was labeled Virginia’s Great Awakening, but that was an interpretative overreach. The Negro—as a beast, a burden, or a brother—was there to be dealt with by whites, who were the actors in the racial drama. The Southern common folk felt doubly excluded, unmoved by pedantic, read sermons and restricted to the back pews—the upfront paid pews were reserved for the families of the plantation aristocrats whose patriarchs sat on the vestries. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Article principal : Religion en Israël Liberté religieuse en Israël et dans les territoires occupés. Cossack, member of a people dwelling in the northern hinterlands of the Black and Caspian seas. It was an unstable foundation in the context of American liberal democracy, but one common in human history. These were years of political turmoil, economic disruption, agricultural transition, and significant population movement. Rather, Puritanism emphasized the individual in community, in relationship to other believers, and Puritans did not characteristically strike out alone for the frontier but moved as part of believing church communities. The evangelical churches in the first decades of their existence in the South had been critics of slavery, but That penalty, now paid in full, means God offers forgiveness and new life as a free gift. This is evidenced in the rich literary tradition of figures such as Flannery O’Connor, William Faulkner, Alice Walker, and Walker Percy; in the musical sounds of shape-note singing, the black spirituals, and white and black gospel; in the oratorical artistry of countless chanted sermons and well-known evangelists such as Billy Graham; and it is also wonderfully expressed by the visionary art works of figures such as Howard Finster. In other words, even if 40 percent of southerners are uncounted or unaffiliated, many register as believers if counted by other measures. But their philosophical premises have not. Clergy who for years had bemoaned the state of religion in the South were now tremendously energized, and they for a while submerged theological Both Baptists and Methodists emphasized plain dress and aversion to conspicuous consumption and display, placing them in opposition to the plantation aristocrats who dominated the Anglican churches. The closest competitor to the category of “unaffiliated or uncounted” for the South was “Baptist,” with 19 percent of the total regional population identified as adherents (a category more expansive than that of “members”). And in a very real way they suggest the Northern and Southern styles of religious impulse. School opened each morning with prayer, football games and the summer rodeo began with prayer, any gathering from a family reunion to a Rotary Club lunch could not begin without prayer. Owning a responsibility for the larger society, they determined, had been a profound error. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Many problems formerly seen as “northern,” such as gangs and drugs, infiltrated southern communities in places such as the Mississippi Delta, where the civil rights movement never made a serious dent on the disheartening statistics of black poverty. The one great aberration in the history of mainstream evangelical Protestantism in the South was the reaction of the churches to the perceived threat of abolitionism and their consequent support for secession and the Confederacy. . As black Catholics well knew, this was partly a sham. Nowhere is this more evident than in the self-described “conservative resurgence” inside the nation’s largest Protestant denomination, the Southern Baptist Convention. They still faced some of their old competitors and enemies, such as the honor culture of the Old South that prized masculine assertiveness, as well as the poverty and isolation that gripped so much of the region. Thus, in looking at “minority” religions in the South (which includes Catholicism, Judaism, Asian religions, and Islam), one faces first their near invisibility in the region, at least until quite recently. Southern churches mostly remained separated by race, but in other areas of social life pluralism came to the once solid South. Journal of Southern Religion (1998–). Ministers were the first to notice and comment on the languishing fortunes of religion, and in their personal correspondence, diaries, sermons, and public letters began to decry what came to be called a “declension” in religious sentiment and participation. Much of the material that can be used for primary research in the field of southern religious history is starting to come online, and in the case of audio materials is available in CD form. Printed from Oxford Research Encyclopedias, Religion. Thus, in the recent controversies within southern church organizations, race has been one of the very few items on the agenda not in dispute. The community was to be nurtured, disciplined, conditioned to fulfill Cod’s penultimate plan. Learn more. Southern Civil Religions/Conflict book. On the other hand, in “Church, Honor and Secession” (Religion and the American Civil War), Bertram Wyatt-Brown determines that most southern clergy reluctantly embraced secession, a situation attributed to long-standing ties to northern conservatives, a tradition of speaking softly on controversial public issues, and a hesitation to embrace southern manliness and honor. After the Civil War, by using the term Redemption, white southerners expressed a deeply religious understanding of the tumultuous political events of the 1870s. The migration of black Americans from the South to the rest of the country through much of the 20th century, moreover, ensured that African American sermonic forms that developed over two centuries in the South would spread and become known in national politics through the likes of Jesse Jackson, a native of South Carolina. The category “Historically Black Protestant” registered at 12 percent. Later in the 20th century, however, Pentecostalism became one of the fastest growing religious groupings in America, confounding a generation of interpreters who condemned it as the opiate of the dispossessed. Some ministers declared slavery to be a sin, freed their own slaves, and advocated lifting restrictions on black men who wished to preach the gospel in public. Whenever one attempts to describe Southern or Northern religion, it must be understood that large-scale generalizations are to be made; religion in both sections is too protean and complex to be completely subsumed under any generalization. How to use religion in a sentence. Altogether, church membership among African Americans rose from 2.6 million to 3.6 million from 1890 to 1906. The predominance of southern preachers on the airwaves provides the kind of oral soundtrack that many Americans associate with conservative Protestant Christianity more generally. And that has been the basic mode of the Southern way of religion to our own time. Churches and associations were actually declining in membership. Southern Gothic is a subgenre of Gothic fiction in American literature that takes place in the American South.. Common themes in Southern Gothic literature include deeply flawed, disturbing or eccentric characters who may be involved in hoodoo, decayed or derelict settings, grotesque situations, and other sinister events relating to or stemming from poverty, alienation, crime, or violence. The history of Southern religion is filled with irony, but none greater so than the shift of the evangelicals from being countercultural dissenters, despised and even persecuted for their opposition to slavery and the planter lifestyle in the mid-18th century, to fervent defenders of slavery and the idea of a separate Southern nation. the New World: the mission to create a holy Bible commonwealth in what was called a howling wilderness and the corresponding mission to export that model of the Godly society back to the Old World to complete the Reformation. In the black community, the church was concerned with more than just the state of one’s soul. But even in Louisiana, once traveling far enough northward Baptists and Methodists displaced Catholics. The “Culture” part of the Center’s name largely connoted a focus on the literary and musical arts, with three articles on southern writers and religion. After an intermediary stop in what is now West Virginia, the two, accompanied by a handful of followers, planted a church in Sandy Creek, North Carolina, just below the Virginia boundary, in 1755. The Southern churches have been more prone to scriptural literalism, more concerned with personal morality in a traditional sense, more evangelical than socially reformist. Southern sermonic and oratorical forms reverberated through the majestic cadences of Martin Luther King Jr., and American revivalism took a distinctively modern form through southern barnstorming preachers such as Billy Sunday and, later in the century, Billy Graham. Led by Asbury, the Methodists were primed for very significant growth. Religion definition is - the state of a religious. Southern Baptist definition is - a member of a body of Baptist churches organized in 1845 in the southern U.S. as the Southern Baptist Convention. There were still controversies over taxation, over national economic policy and whether there should be a national bank, over foreign policy issues: for many citizens, these momentous public issues crowded religious concerns aside. The area also lacks a general study that serves as the equivalent of Donald Mathews’s Religion in the Old South. Can southern religion remain “distinctive” in such settings? This religious mentality of Southerners was characterized by an acceptance of the inscrutability of God’s will, the authority of the Scriptures, and a deep religious sentiment. Moreover, the vicious fighting in the final years of the war left plantation houses and barns, dikes and irrigation ditches in the Carolina and Georgia Low Country, and public buildings in ruins or disrepair. It is intimately bound up with the rise of a slaveholding republic, the national Second Great Awakening, the coming of “civilization” to the rustic southern backcountry and newly opening states of the Deep South, the innovative methods (such as circuit-riding preachers and mass-produced pamphlet literature) employed by the newly rising evangelical denominations, and the concerted (and partially successful) effort to evangelize among enslaved people. Statistics can tell many stories, of course. A large proportion of the “unchurched” in the region still believes in God and afterlife. Christine Heyrman, Southern Cross: The Origins of the Bible Belt (New York: Knopf, 1997). Look it up now! From a modern perspective it is easy to say that they were hypocrites and discarded their principles in return for denominational growth. Most probably, they will become part of the landscape, noticed by those looking for evidence of their presence and likely unnoticed by the millions of Baptists and Methodists driving to their church parking lots. Despite what society says, there's still a place for manners in the South. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. But their energy and activism, their powerful evangelical thrust, their use of lay and itinerant preachers and willingness to take the gospel to the listeners rather than expect the listeners to come to single parish churches, insured the growth of the Baptists and the Methodists. It was self–evident wisdom to place some stock in both. Indeed, the very term southern identity itself has been called into question. Religion, human beings’ relation to that which they regard as holy, sacred, absolute, spiritual, divine, or worthy of especial reverence. The largest percentage of these consists of Latino immigrants, especially to Texas and Florida; but they have increasingly been joined by Asian immigrants to southern cities. : a religious movement among the American Indians of the southern U.S. in the 16th and 17th centuries assumed from certain naturalistic art styles in embossed copper plates, cut and engraved shell gorgets, pottery, and batons or maces found in archaeological sites White southern religious ideas of the social order of the races, moreover, could be intellectually grounded in a conservative vision of the role of hierarchy in preserving order and staving off anarchy. people were put off by the evangelicals’ strictures against such so-called worldly sins as fiddle music and dancing (eventually this asceticism waned as the evangelicals grew beyond a tiny sect and began to reflect a broader cross section of the population). This faith took shape partly under the suspicious eyes of watchful but devout whites, but, more importantly, it developed in the sacred spaces the slaves created for themselves in private worship. Parochial schools in the South, including New Orleans, were segregated through the late 19th century, and many Catholic churches increasingly took to segregating pews during services or even to requiring blacks to stand at the back and receive Holy Communion last when whites filled up all the pew spaces. For many ordinary southerners, nothing else besides a religious vision of redeeming the South sufficed for the sacrifices required by the struggle. For many white southern theologians, defeat in the Civil War also shored up orthodoxies of race and place. Note that the R.E.M. During and after the Civil War, white evangelicals entered the public arena as never before. We are bound together in what my predecessor, James L. Sullivan, called a "Rope of Sand with Strength of Steel." From strip-mall mosques to megachurches, the religious communities of Greater Los Angeles are strikingly vibrant and varied. Questions remain as to whether studies in post–Civil War southern religion will add detail to, or fundamentally change, dominant paradigms for understanding southern history. I noticed that while my history textbooks sometimes included religion—Pilgrims and Puritans in New England, Transcendental ministers and religious reformers in the antebellum North, Social Gospellers in the late 19th-century North, and religious thinkers like Harry Emerson Fosdick in the 20th-century North—the only mention of religion in In short, “national” patterns of race relations, including increasing racial segregation of housing (a distinct change from the historic southern pattern of closely mingling and sometimes intersecting white and black residential areas, in part due to the economy of domestic service on which white households depended), became part of the “Southern way of life.”. They saw it differently: what did it prosper the slaves to gain earthly freedom yet lose the chance for eternal life? In a poll conducted in 1998, 20 percent of southerners indicated they attended church services more than once a week, a rate more than double that for non–Southerners. While there was a smattering of other denominations and sects in the region, in all five colonies the official religious body was the Church of England. In 1999, more than one in five affiliated with some faith outside of Protestantism. The aberration in corporate religion—heavy investment in defending the institution of slavery and the political experiment of the Confederacy—was a mistake, a delusion. The power of folk traditions as both internally cohesive and destructive forces in southern black communities also is evident in the practice of conjure, or “black magic,” The practice of conjure, a form of healing and counter-harming that drew from both Christian and African-based religious elements, was primarily the province of poor southern blacks who were its primary practitioners (although whites formed a substantial clientele base). Judaïsme: Calendrier juif, Kibboutz, Aliyah, Diaspora, Sionisme, Fêtes juives, Lois et rituels juifs, Torah. A careful scholar of the women of antebellum Petersburg, Virginia, discovered that women more frequently made out wills (suggesting that their faith made them more willing to face the prospect of death and plan accordingly) and distributed their estate in a more personalistic manner, rewarding those who had greater need or who had demonstrated more affection or assistance to the will writer. More recently, scholars of the civil rights era have pointed out the fact that prominent black ministers avoided association with the movement, with some clearly complicit in the oppressive system. The origins of the Northern religious tradition lie in the well-known Puritan migration to New England in the 17th century. Today’s conservatives, for the most part, have repudiated the white supremacist views of their predecessors. John Dollard, Caste and Class in a Southern Town, 2d ed. It was more pervasive among southern laymen and laywomen and among ministers outside the denominational hierarchy than in the circles of denominational leadership. Pioneered by Lawrence Levine’s Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom (1997), scholars have addressed subjects such as ring shouts, conjure rituals, chanted sermonizing, and blues hollers. The ruling civic and church authorities also recognized the Presbyterians as essentially kindred spirits, and except for the matter of tax support, Presbyterianism soon had the same social cachet as did Anglicanism (after the Revolution, Episcopalianism). In other words, Southern women revealed a more personalistic attitude in their wills than did men, and very possibly it is the action of Southern women that produces the vaunted personalism of the region. Until recently, Catholics have been concentrated primarily in particular subregions (Louisiana and Texas, in particular), Jews have never made it even to 1 percent of the population base, Latinos were scarce outside of Texas, and Asians represented the tiniest minority of all. Both employed rhythmical accompaniments, enthusiastic hollers, and holy dancing. One fundamentally wants to remake individuals, the other wants to remake society. Some topics (such as Appalachian mountain religious expression) have drawn the attention of anthropologists but not often of historians. But of course victory did not come. The civil rights struggle re-formed southern denominations, splitting them along the lines of conservatives, moderates, and liberals that typically form cross-denominational alliances. As evangelicalism accommodated to Southern society in order to be allowed to preach the gospel in the slave quarters, and as more and more slaves became Christians, Southern white ministers and their flocks came to see slavery as a divine institution—the process God devised to introduce Africans to Christianity. McGee as a Methodist preached with a degree of enthusiasm and emotional abandon never seen in a Presbyterian church, and the worshippers—their springs of expectation wound almost to the breaking point—sensed that this was an unusual occasion, perhaps even extraordinary. C. H. Mason’s Church of God in Christ congregations immediately adopted them. While the colonial elites could experience their church affiliation as a kind of social club that marked both their prominence and authority, the majority of whites—and even more so the slaves—often felt alienated from the established church. Southern evangelical culture also varied greatly by subregion—between city and country, the Southeast and Southwest, Virginia and Texas, Florida and Kentucky, the Appalachian Mountains and the Lowcountry, the piney woods and the Black Belt, the Dust Bowl and the Florida swamplands. Sometimes noticed (and often ridiculed) by whites, slave religion found its fullest expression in the brush arbors and secret places where enslaved Christians could express religious faith in the way they chose. After World War II, the American creed required white southern theologians to mouth the words that all men were created equal. Jews held a respected spot, too, in the cultural imaginary of southern evangelical Protestants, since Jews were, after all, descended from Abraham and Moses and David. Thus in many ways the most fervent of the evangelicals in the last half of the 18th-century South represented an intentionally oppositional culture, which intensified elite condescension and hostility toward them at the same time that it strengthened the evangelicals’ sense of separate identity. Since the civil rights era, Jews have joined Catholics as increasingly “blended in” to the southern religious landscape, especially in the largest urban areas and in university communities. See more. The rigid Bible Belt conservatism associated with the common understanding of religion in the South contrasts dramatically with the sheer creative explosiveness of southern religious cultural expression. While there had in the past been large gatherings of Presbyterians for Learn more about the history and significance of the Reconquista in this article. 1. Religion in Southern California is about more than prayer and ritual in churches, temples and masjids. This lesson explores the nature and history of the Religious Society of Friends, also known as the Quakers. The best starting point is the six-CD collection Goodbye Babylon (Dust-to-Digital Records, Atlanta, Georgia, 2003), a sampler of nearly every kind of southern religious music recorded earlier in the 20th century. For contemporaries, though, the rapid change seemed chaotic and frightening: where would it go, when would it end, how would peoples’ lives be transformed? | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Revolutionary War veterans had land bounties in partial payment for their military service. 13. A Southern value that is most often linked to faith is family. Better to compromise on political issues if that were the price of being able to preach more freely across the region. Over 15 percent of Southerners polled in 1999 claimed a Catholic identity. Like the first Reconstruction, then, the civil rights movement, sometimes called the second Reconstruction, is an unfinished revolution—nowhere more so than in southern religion. Studies of southern religion make up a vital part of American religious history. Countless thousands have in their faith found a meaning system that gave structure and purpose to their lives, found moral guidelines for good behavior, found fellowship and love that reached across countless congregations. the South was the embarrassing episode of the Scopes Trial. 6. The phrase “losing my religion” is an expression from the southern region of the US that means losing one’s temper or “at my wit’s end,” meaning as if things were going so bad you could lose your faith in God. White Pentecostals soon picked them up, and the two shared hymns and holy dancing. The South, then, is the most solidly evangelical region of the country, and the South’s evangelicals are the most conservative in terms of voting patterns, views of biblical authority, and attitudes toward significant social issues. The biracial nature of evangelicalism in the South, as well, lends it a distinctive history and culture that alternately puzzles, repulses, and fascinates outsiders. The Presbyterians appealed to those who were more affluent and sometimes better educated; although in their founding decades at least some Presbyterian ministers were antislavery, by the 1760’s they were beginning to make accommodations to the slaveholding society. Women have found avenues of service and leadership in times when the larger society excluded them from positions of leadership, and many Southern people whose lack of affluence and education left them powerless in secular society have found strength and leadership roles in their churches. And that has been the basic mode of the Southern way of religion to our own time. That is, individual Puritan believers and their individual churches were part of a great Providential plan: even act was filled with transcendent meaning. The parallel among whites may be found most strongly in the Appalachian Mountains, where a variety of distinctive subregional religious traditions, with considerable folk and supernatural roots of their own, lived on in the face of the rise to respectability of the southern denominations. The Southern religious tradition has, however, been quite different. In the 20th century agents of the U.S. weather service noticed the statistically higher death rate from tornadoes in the South and concluded that fatalism led Southerners, unlike Midwestern farmers, to neglect building storm cellars. Its constitution guarantees freedom of religion. In like manner the Baptists and Methodists were from the beginning open to black worshippers and were often opponents of slavery. McGee too saw the opportunity as special and threw himself into the spirit of the occasion, breaking into tears and uttering his conviction that God was present in a powerful way. For much of the 19th century and at least the-first half of the 20th century, this Northern religious tradition was seen as the national religions mainstream. Puritans tended to define their individual callings not only as a personal response to God’s plan for them but also saw their calling in terms of the needs of the larger community. Evangelicals were alienated from the dominant culture and focused inwardly and on their immediate church community. Black and white Pentecostals seized on the opportunities provided by mass media to spread their message. Of Donald Mathews ’ s penultimate plan itself, with Wednesday night prayer services spam submissions have religion... 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